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Newton’s Laws Revisited

Newton’s Laws Revisited

Newton’s Principia Mathematica, the book published in 1687, contains Newton’s three laws of motion.  Most people think he wrote it to explain forces on blocks, falling stones, and pulleys.  But that’s not true. The purpose of the book was to explain the motion of the planets and comets.  Ultimately, Newton proves that Kepler’s “laws” of planetary motion are actually a natural consequence of one single law of the inverse square relationship of gravitational force.

Newton’s famous diagram which explains satellite orbits

Fig 1. Newton’s famous diagram which explains satellite orbits. Imagine a cannon is fired from a mountaintop. It could go fast enough to fall around the earth rather than upon it.

In the preface to the book, Newton distinguishes between PRACTICAL MECHANICS, which would include fixing windmills and carts (today automobiles), and RATIONAL MECHANICS, which concerns itself with the motion of the planets and the Earth among the stars.  These days Rational Mechanics is called CELESTIAL MECHANICS. It was Newton’s breakthrough and his thesis was that the laws of physics would be the same whether on earth or up in the heavens.  This is the apple story that the gravity on the apple would also apply to the moon. That is the gravity of the earth reaches beyond the earth’s surface, as far as you like into space, and pulls the moon into a curved path.  In this video and article, I revisit Newton’s laws from within the historical context and from his own original purpose of devising them.  To explain the motion of the planets. Frequently he speaks of “motion” as the product of mass and velocity, these days we would call this momentum.
Practical Mechanics and Rational Mechanics in one picture

Fig 2. Practical Mechanics and Rational Mechanics in one picture. Perhaps there is only one type of mechanics after all? A Gravity Well was used in this demonstration.

1st Law

Although you already know it, I believe it is best if we restate it as follows:

All objects, including planets and meteors, will continue in their motion, in a straight line at constant speed, unless there is a force that acts on them.  
On earth, we rarely see this event because there is so often a force, like friction, pushing or pulling on objects.  Newton correctly hypothesized that there would be no air in outer space, and this would explain how the planets could continue in perpetual motion along their paths. He reasoned that there must be no air beyond the atmosphere near earth’s surface because as we climb mountains there is less and less air.  At distances such as the moon (60 earth radii) there would be so little air that the moon’s motion would essentially be through a vacuum.  This explains how it can move with no friction.
Although Newton never had this view, we can see that the earth’s atmosphere barely extends beyond its surface

Fig 3. Although Newton never had this view, we can see that the earth’s atmosphere barely extends beyond its surface. Basically, at this scale, it is a thin coat of white and light blue paint. The moon should be much further off, about 10 feet away on this scale.

2nd Law

An alteration from linear motion is caused by a force (a push or a pull) but the larger the mass, the less the force will change the motion.

a = F / m

It is best to write the equation in this form, at least initially, to demonstrate the proportionalities. Alterations of motion are caused by force but mass (inertia) resists.  As always, a force is a push or a pull.  An object like Jupiter might be traveling through space and have its straight-line path altered by the inward pull of gravity caused by the sun.
Jupiter with its four moons, moves in a nearly circular orbit, pulled by the sun’s gravity. The whole journey takes about 12 years.

Fig 4. Jupiter with its four moons, moves in a nearly circular orbit, pulled by the sun’s gravity. The whole journey takes about 12 years. The four moons circle Jupiter like clockwork and helped Newton calculate the density of the various planets. The closest one, Io takes less than 2 days to orbit the giant planet.

Now it is no longer moving in a straight line.  This relationship, a=F/m defines inertia as the effort required to alter an object’s motion, and it turns out that inertia can be measured by mass, which Newton called the quantity of matter.
Shaking objects quickly can demonstrate inertia. The smaller mass is easy to shake, but the heavy one takes a lot of effort.

Fig 5. Shaking objects quickly can demonstrate inertia. The smaller mass is easy to shake, but the heavy one takes a lot of effort. Inertia is measured by mass. Here I show that a 10g mass can be rapidly shaken, but not a 1000g mass. This defines inertia.

In our physics classes, we often overemphasize acceleration as a solution to this formula.  Then we get surprised when students don’t recognize changes in direction as alterations of motion.
In a typical lab, somebody might let a Fan Cart go, and measure the acceleration difference as the mass is increased.
A Fan Cart can be loaded with mass to demonstrate that the same force causes less acceleration.

Fig 6. A Fan Cart can be loaded with mass to demonstrate that the same force causes less acceleration. This is an excellent demonstration but is only half of the story of F=ma.

Speeding up is only one form of alteration of motion.  When I teach, I emphasize “alteration” not only because it is a more accurate word, but because it reflects Newton’s original meaning.  Even the translator agrees with me.
Fig 7. Newton’s second law, as it appears in Andrew Motte’s translation from the original Latin. The original phrase is mutationem motus.

Fig 7. Newton’s second law, as it appears in Andrew Motte’s translation from the original Latin. The original phrase is mutationem motus.

Motion in a circle is a very good example of a motion that is being altered. An object that is not going in a straight line will necessarily be subject to a force.  In the video, I show one of our devices, the “Exploring Newton’s First Law: Inertia Kit” which I use here to demonstrate that straight line at constant speed will happen if the force applied stops.
Movement in a circle is a good example of an altered motion.

Fig 8. Movement in a circle is a good example of an altered motion. Unless there is a constantly applied force, the ball will fly off in a straight line at constant speed.

Newton’s second law can also explain why all objects fall at the same rate independent of mass, even a book and a piece of paper.   Normally, they do not succeed at falling at the same rate because of air friction on the paper. But a book and a piece of paper will fall at the same rate if we evacuated the room, but there is an easier way.  If you put the paper on top of the book, then the book will push the air out of the way for them and they will fall together.  A piece of paper will fall at the same rate as a book. We see the solution here.
A massive object m has a greater weight, due to the force of gravity mg.  But that same object also has more inertia, also symbolized by m, and that makes it harder to move around, even for the earth’s gravity.  These two cancel out and the acceleration, yes, in this case, it is acceleration, is simply g.
Now you might not believe that an inanimate object like the earth could have trouble moving things around, but that is precisely the case.  Here, I have an Inertia Balance, which shows you that more massive objects are harder to move about even for objects like tables and springs or metal bands.  The rate at which it can bound the greater inertia is less.
Fig 9. The inertial balance set can be used to demonstrate that even inanimate objects, like these metal strips can have a difficult time bouncing larger amounts of mass around.

Fig 9. The Inertial Balance set can be used to demonstrate that even inanimate objects, like these metal strips, can have a difficult time bouncing larger amounts of mass around.

3rd Law

It is now time to state Newton’s 3rd law properly.  For every action force, there is a reaction force that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

In Newton’s words, when you push on a stone, the stone pushes equally back on your finger.
It is possible to show the third law more accurately.  Set up a situation where two people pull on the same scale, their scales will always agree.
What if you ask your partner to pull with 20N and you only pull with 10 N.  This is impossible to achieve, but the result will be that they will move in the direction of the person pulling harder
Newton did discuss the tides and the motions of the planets, especially Jupiter, how it would perturb the sun, causing it to wobble.  But he did not know about Pluto, which is a great way to illustrate the third law in terms of gravitation.
As Charon goes around Pluto, it causes it to wobble.

Fig 10. In the video, I show this animated gif of Pluto and its moon Charon, taken from the New Horizons Spacecraft that photographed it in 2015. As Charon goes around Pluto, it causes it to wobble. This is because they both pull on each other with equal force.

There is also Newton’s own example, the cart, and the horse.  In the Principia, Isaac Newton discussed how his 3rd Law can best be understood in the context of a horse pulling on a cart.  Paul Hewitt immortalized this example still further by using it as the basis of a cartoon:
Paul G. Hewitt drew this cartoon, inspired by Newton’s own example of his third law.

Fig 11. Paul G. Hewitt drew this cartoon, inspired by Newton’s own example of his third law. Find this in his masterpiece book called Conceptual Physics.

Newton’s third law explains jumping.  When I jump I push down on the ground with my feet, which pushes me upward with a force equal to my push.
. It is possible to demonstrate Newton’s 3rd Law by putting two Newton scales together.

Fig 12. It is possible to demonstrate Newton’s 3rd Law by putting two Newton scales together. These are quite funny, they told me that I weight 800N.

A lot of the names we give for exercises seem to violate Newton’s 3rd Law.  For example, have you ever done a pull-up, what are you doing to the bar when you do this?  Pulling down!  It is the bar that pulls you up!  Have you ever done a push-up?  What are you doing when you do this?  Yes, pushing down, the ground is doing the push-up.
Another way to understand Newton’s third law is through the example of the air-powered projectile.  When a burst of air is pushed out of the bottom of the tube, the projectile is pushed up by that same air.  All rockets work on this principle, but the air-powered projectile is not truly a rocket because it only ejects the gas once and provides no flame, etc.
Newton’s 4th Law

Now, what about the planets, Jupiter, and the tides?  Newton explained that gravity reaches up from the surface of the earth and out into space, expanding and diminishing.  The acceleration weakening in proportion to the distance squared.

The gravitational field of a massive planet extends through space, but all the while weakens as the square of the distance from that planet.

Fig 13. The gravitational field of a massive planet extends through space, but all the while weakens as the square of the distance from that planet. The distance is initially measured to be the radius of the planet, so the gravity would not be twice as weak when you are an extra meter above the surface, but a full earth’s radius.

This is usually written similar to the form of F=GMm/r2 and most people incorrectly believe that Newton didn’t know the value G, but that is another Isaac Newton myth.
Newton guessed that the density of the earth was between 5 and 6 times that of water. Which is correct.  He then used the volume of a sphere to estimate the mass from mass = Density times bulk – his word for volume.
Most people who teach physics are aware of Henry Cavendish’s experiment to determine the universal constant G.

Fig 14. Most people who teach physics are aware of Henry Cavendish’s experiment to determine the universal constant G. Except, that he was interested in measuring the density of the earth. The symbol G was introduced much later. This device is called a torsion balance. The way it works is that two heavyweights W were attracted by the two cute little one’s C a telescope T was used to observe the twisting of the rope. Fun fact, Henry Cavendish is also the discoverer of Hydrogen.

The one thing that Newton could not understand was how gravity acted through space.  We now better understand that it is a gravity field that extends from the sun to the planets.  This is the Einsteinian model, that mass bends the fabric of space-time.  Recently confirmed, by the detection of gravitational waves that distort the gravity field, and travel at the speed of light.
The warping of spacetime is the current best explanation for how gravitational forces seem to reach out and pull on masses.

Fig 15. The warping of spacetime is the current best explanation for how gravitational forces seem to reach out and pull on masses. In Newton’s time, he had to appeal to the idea that the law worked so it must be true.

One of the best ways to demonstrate the modern answer to Newton’s conundrum about “occult forces” and through the Einsteinian Model of the warping of space, time is with the Gravity Well.  This device is surprisingly easy to build.  I have my own set of planets which I like to send around the large 1 kg sun ball that is provided.  However, the set comes with colored marbles which will illustrate the point just as well.
The corrections made by Einstein to Newton’s gravity theory were very slight, but they were not negligible.  There were three specific predictions.  1) Light would be bent by gravity a very specific amount. 2)  The orbit of Mercury would process (spin) over many years. 3) There would be gravity waves that would travel at the speed of light.
The first of these was demonstrated during a solar eclipse, two years after the publication of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. The Newton theory predicted less deviation of light than the Einstein theory.  The experiment was done by Arthur Eddington, taking pictures of stars during a solar eclipse.  Their positions were deflected by the sun’s gravity.
Arthur Eddington’s famous photograph of stars during a solar eclipse proved that Einstein’s new theory was more accurate than Newton’s old one.

Fig 16. Arthur Eddington’s famous photograph of stars during a solar eclipse proved that Einstein’s new theory was more accurate than Newton’s old one.

The second of these errors was already known to astronomers.  Because the sun is not the only object in the solar system, the other planets deflect one another from their orbital paths.  This error is called precession of the perihelion.  Einstein correctly reasoned that Mercury would show the biggest error when compared to the Newton solution because it was so close to the sun.  He was right, and so was his new theory.
The orbit of Mercury is an ellipse, but this ellipse precesses slightly over the centuries.

Fig 17. The orbit of Mercury is an ellipse, but this ellipse precesses slightly over the centuries. The theory of Newton also predicts this (due to the presence of other planets) but the theory of Einstein worked better. The error was about 1 degree over 2 years.

The third prediction of general relativity is that there would be gravitational waves that would propagate at the speed of light.  This was demonstrated only as recently as 2016 in the LIGO laboratories and has already been rewarded with a Nobel prize.  These gravitational waves were detected twice, and the signal was the same.
Two gravitational wave signals detected at the same time in different states.

Fig 18. Two gravitational wave signals detected at the same time in different states. The event was supposedly a pair of black holes in another galaxy colliding and rippling the fabric of space-time. Physicists will immediately recognize that these vibrations would be inaudible frequencies.

These such vibrations can also be demonstrated with the Gravity Well.  Here is a video in which they are demonstrated with a drill. A strobe light is used to help make the waves more visible.

 


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Calories From a Heat Pack

This article was written with the intention to focus on middle school science experiments, however, I would not be surprised if high school teachers of physics and chemistry also benefit from it. How many calories of heat are in a hand warmer or “heat pack?”

 

The heat pack is a convenient way to warm up your hands, but it also can provide a good lesson in physical science.  It works by giving off heat in an exothermic physical change. The process is called “Fusion” which is whenever a liquid becomes a solid.  In this case, “crystallization” is the specific form of fusion because crystals are formed.  In order to melt these crystals, like melting ice, heat would have to be introduced and absorbed (endothermic).  However, in this case, in order to form crystals, the reverse happens, heat is released (exothermic).  Similarly, water has to have heat removed from it to form ice.  Freezing is an exothermic process.

James Lincoln is holding a heat pack.

Figure: The heat pack will release thousands of calories as it turns from liquid to crystal.  This is the exothermic process known as fusion.

But how much heat does it give off?
James burning peanut under soda with calorie calculation

Figure: Burning a peanut is a dramatic way to demonstrate that calories are a measure of heat.  The soda can absorb some of the heat, but most of it is actually lost to the air.  There is about 50% error in this experiment even when done correctly.

The “Burn a Peanut Lab” is a well-known approach to measuring calories.  The peanut is shelled, skinned, and skewered on a paperclip.  It is then burned under a measured mass of water, for example, 200g.  A thin metal container, such as a soda can, works fairly well.  The temperature is measured both before and after and from these data you can determine the calorie content.

Calories = (Mass) x (∆T)

Here, the mass is in grams, and the ∆T, or change in temperature, is Celsius.  The surprise is that there are usually thousands of calories in the peanut, which makes no sense.  The lesson is that there are two types of calories: heat calories and food calories.  Food calories are 1000 heat calories, also known as a kilocalorie.  So, your 2000 calorie diet is really a 2,000,000 calorie diet!

A safer experiment, or a follow-up experiment, is to measure the calories in a heat pack.  You do not necessarily have to tell the students the instructions.  They can try to figure out a process on their own.  The way I usually do this experiment is to place one in an insulating container, with about 200g of water, and click the button.  The water will begin to warm up.  Don’t forget that 1g is 1mL for water.

Image showing the equipment that is required for the experiment

Figure: The equipment you will need to perform the calories in a heat pack experiment.  Although, you will probably not need the fire extinguisher.

Clicking the button forms a tiny crystal seed, called a nucleation site.  From this seed, the other crystals grow. The crystal seed is necessary because the liquid in the heat pack is chemically pure.  In the case of snowflakes, the seed is usually a speck of dust, but this pack contains pure Sodium Acetate which is super-saturated in water. That means that there is so much sodium acetate that cannot stay dissolved in the water and should be solid (like too much sugar at the bottom of a Kool-Aid mix).  Sodium acetate is non-toxic and is even added to food as a seasoning.  Chemically, it is a vinegar salt.  Perhaps you have eaten it on potato chips?

Figure: The center of a snowflake is the point from which it grows.  This point is called a nucleation site.  (Nucleus means seed.) Since there is no speck of dust in the sodium acetate, we have to form a nucleation by other means.  Compression can squeeze the liquid into a solid (for must substances, not water) and this is how the first crystal forms for the heat pack.

The heat packs are reusable.  When you need to reset the next class, simply boil the heat packs and let them cool.  They must be completely boiled because any remaining crystal can be a seed and recrystallize the whole pack.

A typical result I get is that the 200g of water here heated up by 10 degrees Celsius.  That makes 2000 calories from the heat pack into the water, during this simple experiment.

The whole story is a bit more complicated.  The sodium acetate (Na2CO3) is also heating up itself in the process.  If the water is set for a bit longer you can be sure that the sodium acetate and water are the same temperature.  The combination of the two heats will give you the total heat released by the heat pack.  Here is the equation:

Calories to heat up water + Calories to heat up Sodium Acetate = Total heat released

Qwater + Q Na2CO3 =  mCw∆T + mCs∆T  = Qtotal

Here the C in the equation is the “specific heat.”  This value is different for each substance.  For water, it is 1.  For sodium acetate, it is about 2.5 (because sodium acetate is mixed with water, you may wish to check this for yourself).

A diagram showing latent heat of 1 gram of water

Figure: A latent heat diagram for 1 gram of water.  Notice that the same amount (80 calories) of heat is needed to either melt or freeze water.  In the case of sodium acetate, it is 63 calories/gram.

Lastly, there is the concept of “latent heat” which is the amount of heat expected to be released in a phase change such as freezing or required for a phase change, such as melting.  In the case of sodium acetate, this should be about 63 calories/gram.  However, you must consider that there is likely water mixed into the heat pack, which can complicate things.  You will need to measure the mass of the heat pack to verify the Qtotal value.

I recommend sticking to the familiar how many calories lab.  I hope that you enjoy extending that lab to include this new experiment.  It is fun and easy to do.  If you want to do further experiments, cutting open the sodium acetate packs can help you.  By adding green food dye you can make “kryptonite crystals,” and by pouring it vertically, you can solidify it into mountains or other shapes.  Be creative and have fun.

Shows Matterhorn being formed from experiment side by side with full size Matterhorn

Figure: The Matterhorn shape formed when the sodium acetate crystals grow, solidifying as they touch other sodium acetate crystals.

Kryptonite made by just adding green food coloring is being formed in a frying pan

Figure: Kryptonite is simply sodium acetate with green food dye.  These ones are forming in kitchen frying pan.

 


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Lab4Physics Classroom Edition Powered by Arbor Scientific

The Lab4Physics App is a helpful tool for teaching physics and physical science. It is a lab app for smartphones and tablets, and because of the familiar controls and friendly, easy-to-use interface, all your students can use it

 

The App works by using the built-in features of cell phones and tablets that convert easily to probeware, such as the accelerometer, which we will explore first.


Fig 1.  The Lab4Physics home screen.  When you open the app, there are lots of experiments you can try (which are categorized on the left) or you can go straight to the tools (right) and perform your own experiments.

 

ACCELEROMETER

 

If you shake the phone up and down, the accelerometer records this motion in 3D. Deleting the X and Z axis, we will now graph only the Y-vertical motion.

Fig 2.  It is easy to use the accelerometer to measure the earth’s gravity field strength.  Here the phone was held vertical then slowly turned to lay flat.  The gravity constant 9.8 m/s2 is measured.

The app allows you to zoom in, both vertically and horizontally, and slide the image around, just like a picture or map.  Because this interface is so familiar, students will already know how to do this.

Fig 3.  The phone’s Acceleration is measured in 3 dimensions, but typically you only need one.

Because the accelerometer is so easy to use, you will find yourself using it in many different applications, such as spring and pendulum experiments.  Note that when facing the phone, X is right and left, Y is up and down, and Z is toward and away.  The positive axes are right, up, and toward, which you can remember with thumb X, open fingers Y, palm-slap Z.

Fig 4.  Zoomed-in on the image of the above data.  Vertical zoom for precise amplitude measurements and horizontal zoom for precise time (period) measurements.

Fig 5.  A plastic bag is a convenient container for the phone when performing spring and pendulum experiments.  The touchscreen still works fine through the plastic.

 

SONOMETER

 

Using the microphone, Lab4Physics can analyze the intensity and frequency of a sound that the phone records. With this device, you can see the waveform of the frequencies that the phone picked up. Use this to compare the amplitudes of loud and quiet sounds or the frequencies of a high and low pitch.  This works as an instant oscilloscope. It is also possible to measure the period as the time between peaks, it helps to zoom in for this.

Fig 6.  The Sonometer makes a measurement of the author’s whistling ability.  The period can be measured as the peak to peak time, or the Highest peak frequency can be displayed automatically by using the Intensity vs. Frequency feature.

The waveform displayed looks transverse, but the sound is a longitudinal wave.  Therefore, it is important to explain how this wave was generated.  It was the motion of the vibrating microphone that moved a small magnet that generated the electricity that became the signal displayed. The device also can calculate the frequency of the loudest part of the signal it is detecting.  This can be used to test who sings with the highest or lowest frequency or just to check the frequencies of musical instruments.

Fig 7.  A tuning fork, which is supposed to be the musical tuning standard A 440Hz, is revealed to be very nearly correct by the Lab4Physics App’s Sonometer feature.

 

CAMERA / MOTION TRACKING

 

One of the most useful features is the ability to track an object’s motion.  Utilizing the phone’s camera, film an object (usually with a ruler in the picture), and by tracking at a specific point on the object, you can follow its motion through the frames of footage.

Fig 8.  An accelerating toy car has its motion tracked through ten frames of footage generating the expected parabola of an accelerating object.

 Because the frames are equally separated by time intervals the app can turn this data into a distance vs. time graph.  From this data, it further generates the acceleration and velocity graphs.  Even a Data Table is provided so you can sort out anomalous data or analyze further.

 

SPEEDOMETER

 

Lab4Physics also has a speedometer which is a streamlined alternative to stopwatches.  Students can, for example, set up a series of positions and click the split button to get the individual times for when the object is at that position.  Using this, graphs are generated for position and velocity.

Fig 9. A typical Speedometer experiment. Tracking the position of a toy car through space. Changing it from going slow to fast can show up on a position vs. time graph.

 

EXPERIMENTS AND LABS

 

Lab4Physics has lots of ready to go labs to instruct your students, or you can use them to give you ideas.  Here we explore some of the labs on waves.

Fig 10.  Left, a screenshot from the app shows the four labs on waves.  Choosing Do-Re-Mi takes us eventually to this screen, right, which shows how we will be exploring the frequency of a musical instrument.

 The labs take the students through the experiment in five or six steps.  They are self-contained and complete and let you know how much time the activity should take.

 


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Whiteboarding Ebook

Would you like to win a free 6-pack?

To celebrate the launch of our very own high quality whiteboards, we started a new contest where you can win a 6 pack for your classroom.  Here’s how:

Share your whiteboarding classroom tips and experiences on your social media by simply adding the hashtag #WhiteBoardTeaching on any of your whiteboard related posts (twitter preferred) by 5/31/17 and you are entered. All contest Twitter posts will be displayed on our contest gallery page below where you can also vote for your favorite submission!

Good luck!

Click here to see the Gallery of tips!

Whiteboarding Ebook

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Arbor Scientific Launches Slow Motion Physics Video Contest

Slow motion video capability is an exciting new feature in the latest smartphones and it hasn’t taken long for cool new slow-motion videos to surface, especially in science.

View or Vote

 

Arbor Scientific has been the leader in finding cool science tools for the past 30 years that make understanding scientific principles easy, fun and exciting for today’s students. “We started this contest as way to enable science lovers like us to easily share our smartphone slow-mo videos that can remarkably demonstrate the physics of so many complex principles. Ideally we want #SlowMoPhysics to become a new free resource available to science teachers to help teach physics in a cool way” says Andrea Kelly, Marketing Manager of Arbor Scientific.

This new slow-motion competition seeks videos from teachers, students and all people who capture demonstrations of “physics” in the world! The contest will accept submissions from December 6, 2016 to January 31, 2017. Also, the public can vote on the submissions at the contest video gallery page found on https://slowmophysics.hscampaigns.com.

The winner(s) will be selected by Arbor Scientific based on originality, popularity and educational value by March 1, 2017 and will receive a $100 gift certificate from Arbor Scientific and the chance to be profiled via Arbor Scientific’s blog and their CoolStuff e-Newsletter mailed to over 20,000 educators.

There also is a specific Teacher Challenge!

Arbor Scientific is encouraging teachers to have their classrooms participate, and get a surprise classroom prize.  See the #SlowMoPhysics Video Contest page for further details.

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Howdy Texas!

We invite you to stop by our booth #418 so that you can personally see and touch many of the “Cool tools” that we have for physics, physical science and chemistry.  We will have many products on display, but the following will be featured:

  • RSpec-Explorer – View spectra live on a PC in minutes, and experience real-time spectroscopy for a fraction of the cost of like products.
  • Pendulum Wave – A unique Arbor Scientific acrylic model which consists of a series of pendula with increasing time periods. When the nine pendula are simultaneously released, they produce the effect of a wave.
  • Forces on Inclined Plane Demonstrator – A new Arbor Scientific tool that allows teachers and students to engage directly and easily with different forces and angles on an inclined plane. If you would like to have a more in-depth introduction to our Cool Tools, we invite you to attend our workshop on Force and Motion or any of our sponsored workshops described below.

Cool Tools for Force and Motion
Thursday, November 10 8:00 AM – 9:00 AM
Meeting Room 224

Buzz picture

“Buzz” Dwight Putnam (Whitesboro High School: Marcy, NY)

These engaging demos are presented by award-winning teacher Buzz Putnam. Classroom-ready activities include Stunt Car Lab, the Monkey-Hunter “problem,” the vertical vs. horizontal acceleration demo, a simple way to prove “g” is always the same, and the Human Dynamics Cart. Learn about great tools that support STEM inquiry. Lesson plans and door prizes.


SPONSORED WORKSHOPS:

Cool Tools for Sound and Waves
Thursday, November 10  1:00 PM – 2:00 PM
Meeting Room 301B, Ballroom Level
Participants will see and use innovative, hands-on activities and demos related to sound and waves. Learn how to teach about waves and wave properties, sound production and propagation, wave frequency and its relationship to sound, standing waves in springs and pipes, and a lot more. Learn about great tools that support STEM inquiry. Lesson plans and door prizes.
Presenter(s): Dwight Putnam (Whitesboro High School: Marcy, NY)


Cool Tools for Electricity and Magnetism
Thursday, November 10 2:30 PM – 3:30 PM
Meeting Room 301B, Ballroom Level
Study the intimate relationship between electricity and magnetism as presented by award-winning teacher Buzz Putnam. These classroom-ready activities include wiggling a bulb filament 60 times/second, what a neodymium magnet and Total Cereal have in common, levitating a frog via electromagnetism, and lighting a bulb with battery/wires. Learn about great tools that support STEM inquiry. Lesson plans and door prizes.
Presenter(s): Dwight Putnam (Whitesboro High School: Marcy, NY)


Cool Tools for Light and Color
Friday, November 11 4:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Meeting Room 301B, Ballroom Level
Strap in for amazing light and color demos presented by award-winning teacher Buzz Putnam. These classroom-ready activities include mixing colors to cast cyan/magenta shadows, why it’s OK to eat a black strawberry, comparing yellow light from a lemon and a smartphone, and the “mirror challenge” question! Learn about great tools that support STEM inquiry. Lesson plans and door prizes.
Presenter(s): Dwight Putnam (Whitesboro High School: Marcy, NY)

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Hello California!

#CSTA16 is upon us again and we are excited to see you at our booth #100. Also, we want to let you know about our exciting and engaging workshop planned:

Cool Tools for Electricity & Magnetism
Friday, October 21 8:00am-9:30am
Room: REN Pueblo

#cascience16

See us at Booth 100 and our Workshop

Make a light bulb filament “dance” 60 times/second – a great demonstration showing the relationship between AC and DC current. See why the hand-crank Van de Graff is better than the electric. And many more “cool tools” that help teachers engage their students, and at the same time, make difficult concepts much easier to understand.

 

Presented by James Lincoln

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James Lincoln is an experienced physics teacher with graduate degrees in education and applied physics. He has become known nationally as a physics education expert specializing in original demonstrations, the history of physics, and innovative hands-on instruction.

The American Association of Physics Teachers and the Brown Foundation have funded his prior physics film series and SCAAPT’s New Physics Teacher Workshops.

Lincoln currently serves as the Chair of AAPT’s Committee on Apparatus and has served as President of the Southern California Chapter of the AAPT, as a member of the California State Advisory for the Next Generation Science Standards, and as an AP Physics Exam Reader. He has also produced Videos Series for UCLA’s Physics Demos Project, Arbor Scientific, eHow.com, About.com, and edX.org.

Please put this workshop on your calendar and enjoy the conference!

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